Water Resources in India

The abundant water resources in India are sufficient for the water supply in whole of India only if proper and efficient water supply management is adopted. The water infrastructure in India includes tapping of the available water sources by the water board and department in India, proper water treatment and purification, water storage facilities with regular cleaning of the water storage tanks, usage of water, crisis in water supply, water pollution, problems due to scarcity of water, Indian water policy for water conservation and water harvesting etc.

The water sources in India include the vast oceans surrounding the Indian peninsula - Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, the inland rivers - both the Himalayan rivers and the rivers in the south, ground water and rain water available in plenty through the abundant monsoons in India.

The problem area here is the water resources management, where India fails. The management of water resources and sources in India is the responsibility of the Ministry of Water Resources India. It looks after the water management services in India, the issues and problems related to the water supply in India, arrangement of abundant water supply facilities, methods all over India, formulating the water supply policies and strategies for an equated supply and division of water resources of India.

Water Management Policies of GoI

The Government of India (GoI) has formed various water management systems and authorities in India. These include Central Water Commission, Central Ground Water Board, National Water Development Agency, National Projects Construction Corporation Ltd. etc. for efficient water resources management. The policies thus formulated include Irrigation Management Policy, National Policy Guidelines to allocate water resources like rivers flowing through multiple states, National Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development Plan, Water Information Bill, River Basin Organization Policy, and many more. Various water reservoir projects were also taken up by the Ministry of Water Resources like construction and management of dams on various rivers.

Water Supply in India:

Continuous water supply is the requirement of every industry in India. India being a primarily agriculture-based society requires huge amounts of water sources for regular irrigation of the farms as the monsoons are not a reliable water source considering the vast geographical as well as climatic variations in India.

Also safe drinking water supply is another area where the government needs to emphasize more as groundwater is not an everlasting water resource. The water quality is tested at regular intervals and only if the water quality standards fulfill certain quality parameters, the water is certified to be safe for drinking.

Water Conservation:

The Indian government provided the masses with adequate water supply but the management of the water supply systems wasn't undertaken efficiently this has resulted in deteriorating condition of the water supply network. Thus majority is forced to pump out ground water to fulfill the water requirements that has in turn created a huge drop in the ground water levels.

Thus an effective strategy for water conservation is the need of the hour. The steps taken in this regard include water treatment plants, water pollution control so as to keep the water resources safe for other usage, careful scrutiny of water supply division and projects. The water supply department by adopting timely conservation methods can help solve the water shortage problem in India and deal with the ongoing water crisis in India.

Rainwater harvesting can also provide a solution to the water crisis in India. Certain areas in India receive plenty rainfall and thus creating huge rainwater harvesting water tanks can help is accumulation of natural water and then after some treatment can be utilized as a drinking water substitute.

Water Purification Industry

Large-scale water treatment is being undertaken so as to utilize the existing water resources to an optimum level. Water purification has become an industry in itself. The water purification industry in India deals in improving water quality standards of drinking water, management and treatment of ground water, bottling of mineral water available in various parts of the country and providing this bottled water throughout India as a safe drinking water solution. The major water treatment plants owners and water treatment companies in India products in the bottled water industry include Kinley, Bisleri, Aquafina, and Kingfisher etc.

Water Reservoir Dams and Projects:

As a solution to the water crisis in India, the government took up building of huge dams and water reservoirs that provided multiple solutions. The dams build on various rivers provided safety against the floods that used to frequent these rivers, effective use of natural water resource, providing irrigation facilities to the surrounding field and farms and also in the production of hydroelectricity.

The major dams and water reservoirs in India include:

  • Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, Andhra Pradesh

  • Sardar Sarover Project build on river Narmada, Gujarat

  • Bhakra Nangal Dam build on river Sutlej, Himachal Pradesh

  • Gobind Sagar and Maharana Pratap Sagar Dam, Himachal Pradesh

  • Krishna Raja Sagara Dam on Cauvery River, Karnataka

  • Tunga Bhadra Dam

  • Neyyar Dam, Kerala

  • Narmada Dam Project, Madhya Project

  • Hirakund Dam Build on Mahanadi River, Orissa

  • Farakka Barrage

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